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                                            Very Awkward Facts
                                                  By Laurie Mylroie
                                 The Wall Street Journal, April 2, 2004

The credibility of Clinton counterterrorism chief Richard Clarke has come under withering fire. He has
been caught in error after error, omission after omission. I can attest to one error more: a highly
revealing error that tells us a great deal about who Richard Clarke really is.
Mr. Clarke singles me out for special criticism in his book, "Against All Enemies." This is not surprising.
He believes that Islamic terrorism is the work of a few individual criminals, many of them relatives. I
have for years gathered the evidence that shows that terrorism is something more than a
mom-and-pop operation: that it is supported by powerful states, very much including Saddam
Hussein's Iraq.
Mr. Clarke is a man famously intolerant of those who disagree with him. When he cannot win the
argument, he cheats. And that is what he has done again in the pages of his book. In order to explain
why he opposed the war with Iraq, Mr. Clarke mischaracterizes the arguments of those of us who
favored it. The key mischaracterization turns on an important intelligence debate about the identity of
the mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. This mastermind goes by the name of
"Ramzi Yousef." But who was "Ramzi Yousef"?
The evidence suggests that "Ramzi Yousef" had close connections to the Iraqi security services. This
evidence has impressed, among others, former CIA chief James Woolsey and Richard Perle, former
head of the Defense Policy Board. Mr. Clarke calls the Yousef-Saddam connection an "utterly
discredited" theory, unworthy of serious debate. He likes the phrase so much, he even uses it on the
dust jacket of his book. But let's review the facts:

Fact #1: "Ramzi Yousef" entered the U.S. in September 1992 on an Iraqi passport, with stamps
showing a journey beginning in Baghdad. This fact is attested by the inspector who admitted Yousef
into the U.S. Yet Mr. Clarke contends that Yousef entered the U.S. without a passport.

Fact #2: The sole remaining fugitive from the 1993 bombing, Abdul Rahman Yasin, is an Iraqi. After
the attack, Yasin fled to Iraq. The Iraqi regime rewarded Yasin with a house and monthly stipend. Yet
Mr. Clarke claims, incredibly, that the Iraqis jailed Yasin.

Fact #3: Seven men were indicted in the 1993 attack. Two of the seven, Yousef and Yasin, have Iraqi
connections. Yet Mr. Clarke inflates the number of participants to 12, to create the impression that the
presence of one or two men with Iraqi connections was no big deal.

Fact #4: The truth is, we don't really know much about the prisoner bearing the name "Ramzi Yousef."
Judge Kevin Duffy, who presided over Yousef's two trials, observed at sentencing: "We don't even
know what your real name is." Yet Mr. Clarke claims to know what the judge did not: Yousef, he writes,
"was born Abdul Basit in Pakistan and grew up in Kuwait where his father worked."

To reach this conclusion, Mr. Clarke has to ignore a forest of awkward facts. In late 1992, according to
court documents, Yousef went to the Pakistani consulate in New York with photocopies of the 1984
and 1988 passports of Abdul Basit Karim (those documents have Karim born in Kuwait). Yousef
claimed to be Karim, saying he had lost his passport and needed a new one to return home. He
received a temporary passport, in the name of Abdul Basit Karim, which he used to flee New York the
night of the Trade Center bombing.
Karim was, indeed, a real person, a Pakistani reared in Kuwait. After completing high school in Kuwait,
Karim studied for three years in Britain. He graduated from the Swansea Institute in June 1989 and
returned home, where he got a job in Kuwait's Planning Ministry. He was there a year later, when Iraq
Kuwait maintained an alien resident file on Mr. Karim. That file appears to have been altered to create
a false identity or "legend" for the terrorist Yousef. Above all, the file contains a fingerprint card
bearing Yousef's prints. But Yousef is not Karim -- as Judge Duffy implied -- for many reasons,
including the fact that Yousef is 6 feet tall, while Karim was significantly shorter, according to his
teachers at Swansea. They do not believe their student is the terrorist mastermind. Indeed, according
to Britain's Guardian newspaper, latent fingerprints lifted from material Mr. Karim left at Swansea bear
"no resemblance" to Yousef's prints. They are two different people.
The fingerprint card in Mr. Karim's file had to have been switched. The original card bearing his prints
was replaced with one bearing Yousef's. The only party that reasonably could have done so is Iraq,
while it occupied Kuwait, for the evident purpose of creating a "legend" for one of its terrorist agents.
The debate over Yousef's identity has enormous implications for the 9/11 strikes. U.S. authorities now
understand that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed masterminded those attacks. But Mohammed's identity,
too, is based on Kuwaiti documents that pre-date Kuwait's liberation from Iraq. According to these
documents, Mohammed is Ramzi Yousef's "uncle," and two other al Qaeda masterminds are Yousef's
A former deputy chief of Israeli Military Intelligence, Amos Gilboa, has observed that "it's obvious" that
these identities are fabricated. A family is not at the core of the most ambitious, most lethal series of
terrorist assaults in U.S. history. These are Iraqi agents, given "legends," on the basis of Kuwait's files,
while Iraq occupied the country.
When Mr. Clarke reported, six days after the 9/11 strikes, that no evidence existed linking them to Iraq,
or Iraq to al Qaeda, he was reiterating the position he and others had taken throughout the Clinton
years. They systematically turned a blind eye to such evidence and failed to pursue leads that might
result in a conclusion of Iraqi culpability. These officials were charged with defending us "against all
enemies." Their own prejudices blinded them to at least one of our enemies and left the nation

Ms. Mylroie, an advisor on Iraq to the 1992 Clinton campaign, is author of "The War Against America"
(HarperCollins, 2001).